Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects approx. 15 million1 individuals annually worldwide and is one of the leading causes of death. It is associated with high rates of hospitalization, mortality and disability.

TBI occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result from sudden and violent hit to the head, or when an object goes through the skull and enters brain tissue. In Europe, the main causes of TBI are road traffic accidents, falls and assaults. For Asian countries, traffic accidents incurring TBI mainly involve two-wheeled vehicles.2

Depending on the extent of the damage to the brain, symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe.

  • A person with a mild TBI may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes in addition to headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking.
  • A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.

Results from Cerebrolysin® studies show it can be concluded that patients suffering from mild, moderate or severe TBI benefit from adjuvant treatment with Cerebrolysin® in both, the acute and the post-acute phase.

Please find more information under the following chapter Clinical Efficacy.


1 LEVIN, Harvey S.; SHUM, David; CHAN, Raymond CK (Hg.). Understanding traumatic brain injury: current research and future directions. Oxford University Press, USA, 2014